Author: VC Reporter

THE AMENDMENT PROJECT | The 18th Amendment

by Julia Ornelas-Higdon, Ph.D. “After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.” The 18th Amendment represented the culmination of almost a century of temperance reform movements. Beginning in the early 19th century, Protestant Anglo women began organizing in favor of laws banning alcohol. Temperance reformers believed that Prohibition laws would help protect women and children from poverty caused by husbands and fathers who...

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THE AMENDMENT PROJECT | The 16th Amendment

by Michaela Crawford Reaves AMENDMENT XVIThe Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. In the 18th century import tariffs and land sales largely supported the United States treasury. Any internal taxes were generally based on realty (land) and personalty (assets and moveable goods) interests. The advent of the Civil War in 1861, however, made it necessary to raise money quickly through the first United States income tax, which was a flat 3 percent tax on incomes over $800...

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¡Viva Brazil!

The Salsa Festival came to Oxnard last weekend, July 30-31, with spicy flavor and flair, bringing in a variety of Latino musicians and dancers and encompassing all of the usual entertainment that one would expect at such an event. What was rather unforeseen, though, was the negative feedback when dancers hit the stage in traditional Brazilian carnival costumes, with their sequin-covered, bikini thong-style two-pieces and feather headdresses. The Salsa Festival, after all, did provide a stage for all things Central America and South America. So … what gives? The criticism over the scantily clad Brazilian dancers was based on...

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The Amendment Project | 13th

by Michael Powelson, Ph.D. “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.” Ratified on Dec. 6, 1865, the 13th Amendment abolished slavery and all forced servitude with the exception of convicted criminals. The amendment was initially ratified by 27 states after being enacted seven months after the end of the American Civil War. Nine additional states later ratified the amendment, with Mississippi only ratifying the amendment in 1995. The 13th Amendment did not grant freed...

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Lessons to be learned from Scalia

  The fallout over Supreme Court Associate Justice Antonin Scalia’s death has been rather predictable. The Party of No in Congress has vowed to block any of President Barack Obama’s nominations, promising to confirm only a nomination from the next elected president. We wonder, though, if a Democrat wins the presidency, will the GOP continue to obstruct any nominations for another four years? What if Donald Trump wins? What possibilities have these Republications actually considered? Just how short-sighted are these elected officials? Obama has stated that he will do his presidential duties as expected of him and will shortly...

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